Q1 ARCHITECTURE IS ?
We are texting with 100 prominent architects – sending them SMSes. The architects are out of context, so are their sentences. They are replying, but at the same time, they are unaware of the action. If they have something to say, they will write back. Consistency is in the spectrum.
SPECTRUM OF ARCHITECTS
ARCHITECTURE IS ?
As the Harbin Opera House deepens the emotional connection of the public with the environment, the architecture is consequently theatrical in both its performance of narrative spaces and its context within the landscape.
A dialogue of contrasts between the exterior and interior architecture is manifested in the material choices.
and we change our own position while we change our environment. architecture is about responsibility and it requires the fullest commitment to its realities and its fantasies, to its demanding and intricate process.
NAMELESS architecture is a concept based design practice.
the 'DH traingle school' is located in namyangju, nearby seoul, south korea. SPACE Magazine Nameless architecture is a concept based design practice, with offices in New York and Seoul.
The new On Ne Sait Jamais revealed by Nameless architecture is the product of an everyday cafÃ© scene recreated through a non conventional materialâfabric.
The brilliance of Nameless architecture is revealed in its ability to create various arrangements of space using only a few key pieces of equipment, while keeping the whole subtle and controlled.
Nameless Architecture believes that architecture is not simply the act of making buildings, but the interpretation of the words and values of a society, as well as the relationships that surround them.
The plan's architecture is designed to fit in with the Garden City Communities on either side.
We seek that the architecture is reciprocal with nature, that the place we were configuring was really important for the growth and development of the kids thanks to the mutual collaboration of the parts, the whole and the equivalent relationship between architecture and nature. These elements that configure the kindergarten are didactic and educational.
Permeable or open architecture is one which has a wide range of adaptability, one which by its geometric and spatial order accepts transformation in time and tight and crossed interaction with the weather and the people.
"I think there's a big difference between the UK as a place to produce architecture and the UK as a place where architecture is built.
The resulting architecture is a unique spatial model that is reduced to its very essence, a spatial model that promotes and enables collaboration and cross disciplinary learning.
The form and appearance of WOHA's architecture is always guided by the local context and culture, and above all, by the local climatic conditions, which determine every energy saving strategy.
WOHA's architecture is not based on any house style or set of solutions, but allows the architectural expression to emerge from the answers to these big questions.
Our architecture is at the same time political and poetic as it aims above all to 'create relationships between worlds'.
The history of architecture is marked by this sort of foundational moment, which can be misunderstood as being merely a return to the plan as the basis for architectural representation.
In consequence, architecture is no longer simply the expression of the play of light and shade on bodies and materials but attains a physiological dimension.
The resolution of architecture is a measure of the spatial density of information inherent in a building.
But the purpose of architecture is an open notion, depending on the physical, social, economic cultural and historical background, where it is used.
Common architectonical problems One crucial challenge of architecture is the conflict between building site and program.
As architecture's outlines have become dimmer, the quest for a characterization of a state of the art leads us to the conclusion that architecture is made of infinite and ever changing attitudes materializing in different forms.
This means that architecture is amplified and transcends its objective, becoming a reflection on humankind and on its environment, on its future, but also on the past and its lessons.
From minute zero our architecture is malleable and transformable depending on the rest of the team.
It is always a reason of joy when Spanish architecture is internationally recognised.
The Climatroffice project, dating from 1971, points to a direction where the architecture is determined by a world of 'interiorised' buildings, which live within an envelope so diaphanous that its presence is perceived as being closer to the sky or clouds than to any conventional structure.
On going questioning and discussion, as well as a motivation to transgress given limits, constitute part of the development of every project. EQUIPO MAZZANTI believes architecture is one of the keys for the construction of a more competitive and sustainable society.
I am talking about inclusive architecture; all architecture is social.
Therefore believing that architecture is about dynamics dialogs, between the city and the architecture piece, the people and the building or a scenario where people meet and exchange, relates it directly with processes of sharing information.
Within the specifically Colombian context, architecture is an example of how politics and infrastructure can come together as a means for achieving social inclusion and physical transformations.
we believe that one of the main values of architecture is to build social welfare, and in this way, our work is to understand and anticipate what architecture is capable of generating in terms of behavior and social actions.
it is true that architecture is a discipline usually observed from the basis of building techniques and form, but it is becoming more understood as a physical strategy of political and social betterment.
we believe in working laterally with other disciplines or social scientists seeking to understand the cultural complexity in which we live, and at the same time have direct contact with the communities that will be affected, in order to properly assess the needs, strengths and desires they have. this makes this difficulty you are mentioning increasingly obsolete, and redefines the way that architecture is thinking and evolving.
The Indeterminacy as a design strategy allows us to think that our architecture is capable of multiplying the uses for which it was originally intended to (not as effectiveness, but as a pledge of new relationships).
MASS design group
These numbers suggest a way of thinking about architecture that few have attempted beforeâa way that, if widely adopted, could fundamentally change the way architecture is practiced and evaluated.
"The market for architecture is tiny; it's like, 'who can afford it?
the primary thing behind my background which has influenced my approach to architecture is probably a very personal story about working on my house with my father actually.
I think all architecture is political of course.
all architecture is social, we just sometimes don't elevate the conversation about where architecture is becoming incredibly social or political, and we must just add that to our repertoire of evaluation.
Fake Industries AA
As any other creative discipline, architecture is subjected to a regime of originality.
The history of architecture is full of examples of contextual and/or programmatic deep thinking deployed in fewer than four A1 boards.
Yet the ability of architects to use a combination of texts and drawings limited by format and quantity to propose and communicate architecture is usually part of their success.
The great power of architecture is to take that personal vision out of the realm of the private and into something immersed in the complexities, conflicts and tensions that define the human character and our communities.
Some people think architecture is about the genius sketch; I don't.
Great architecture is a collaboration among a lot of people over a long period of time.
If it takes an unlimited budget and a client willing to walk off the edge, then architecture is only able to work in 0.1 of 0.1% of the projects in the world.
I think despite all attempts in recent years to the contrary, architecture is still one of the last degrees that hasn't disappeared into formats of vocational training.
I use the analogy of the green screen movie stage set as a way of describing what contemporary architecture is becoming, a scaffold for a digitally constructed and mediated world.
We designed and prototyped a series of what we call 'glitch buildings' or 'stealth buildings' which are made with particular formal and material properties that reflect the laser in different ways so that the architecture is no longer just a function of the material constraints, but has a different kind of signature and profile in the data set through which these driver less cars and machines chose to navigate operate.
The reason we have the A+ categories is because architecture is a constant presence, it's the backdrop of everything.
The plus categories are a way to focus on interesting topics and remind people that architecture is at the heart of the conversation.
Calorie tower is a structure for a future society where architecture is not built based on the most efficient and quickest access philosophy but on a detour and more possibility basis.
The new architecture is a vast 28.3 million m2 of mix use programs (from house to school, cinema, market to government facilities) able to inhabit half a million people, the size of downtown Nakornsawan itself.
At the core of our architecture is the ability to take a fresh look at design issues through experienced eyes.
It requires an understanding that local changes affect the global environment, the current context and the construction impact on the environment. Sustainable decisions are incorporated at all stages of our work, from initial workshops, to the design of our models, the selection of material and advice on site.Â By implementing principles of sustainability at the design stage, optimizing the project risk assessment for the building results in minimal environmental damages. Sustainable architecture is everywhere and nowhere.
We believe it is now exhausted and that a new approach to architecture is urgent.
We make a move in order to get a project but in the end it's because we totally understand that architecture is a slow profession.
I think the most interesting and exciting part of architecture is to turn something that seems to be impossible but you know that is really the right way to go into something visible within a budget.
If architecture is a weapon in a military arsenal that implements the power relations of colonialist ideologies, then architecture must burn.
This is a classical attitude, a frame of mind whereby architecture is there to serve the city through projects that answer questions left unresolved at earlier stages and that create systems that are open to future projects.
In fact, architecture is one of a regime's favorite means of expression.
The building is the first element onto which life is grafted." Aldo Rossi  architecture is not an end in itself: it is, rather, at the beginning of something, of the shared history of a place and those who inhabit it.
From my point of view, technology and I'd say that architecture is better described if regarded as a technology is not a progressive linearity, in which something which is better adapted makes the rest obsolete, but a whole context of rhizomatic parallel experiences and discussions in which differences are constructed by the way they interact.
That's what architecture is about, the art of prepositions: under, in, through, in front of.
For us, architecture is not a matter of a certain style or form, but more importantly its adaptability to the local context, its social life and its users.
Our approach to architecture is inclusive; with social, practical, economical and environmental issues integrated within the process.
The architecture is inspired by one of the most important elements in the spallation process, the tungsten disc.
You mention in your question that architecture is also the production of space, but for us the inverse is also true: space production is also architecture, but not limited to it. Our trinity is crucial to the practice.
The architecture is like a catalyst, not an end in itself.
And I think it's important that architecture is sometimes nothing but a frame.
Normally architecture is handled in the cultural section of the paper, along with cinema, music, and other forms of entertainment.
Someone could say that the minimum of architecture is a wall, and that, therefore, materials do not play an important role.
So in that sense, this School of architecture is like the Latapie house, but 10 or 20 times bigger, bringing in further possibilities for unexpected activities to be developed.
As we said before, luxury in architecture is not a question of price or materiality but a question of generosity, of pleasure and freedom provided by the space.
We believe that the most interesting architecture is precisely the type that helps you to realize that architecture isn't necessary; the type that leads you to decide not to build.
We have no set forms, styles or concepts; our architecture is generated by reading the places and the lives of those who will live there.
Knowing and coming up against reality also teaches the economy of things; architecture is that too but they don't really tell you it at university.
I like to spend my time on sculpture, drawing, with my friends, but architecture is one of the constants in my life.
It seems to me that the evolution of architecture is a successive, ongoing convergence of approaches that must not lose sight of the physical goal of history, which is always based on certain events.
I think classifying a work of architecture is an enormous mistake.
Their architecture is no different from the fragile constructions we discussed before.
Soto De Moura
If architecture is always made of the same stuff âwalls, doors and windowsâ why is there such a difference between good and bad architecture?
The most you can aspire to in architecture is anonymous architecture.
The way we think about architecture is also becoming more three dimensional, which in turn has influenced the way we make our models, I think.
We believe that the advancement of architecture is not a goal in itself but a way to improve people's quality of life.
Our curatorial proposal is twofold: on the one hand we would like to widen the range of issues to which architecture is expected to respond, adding explicitly to the cultural and artistic dimensions that already belong to our scope, those that are on the social, political, economical and environmental end of the spectrum.
On the other hand, we would like to highlight the fact that architecture is called to respond to more than one dimension at the time, integrating a variety of fields instead of choosing one or another.
It happens very rarely, but it happensâthose moments where architecture is both about impact and uniqueness, about being anchored and being original.
By definition architecture is a collective practice.
This structure is the result of my research. I don't believe that architecture is just about the works, as in art.
Today, architecture is too professional and there is too much digital design.
If modern architecture is all about the professional architecture system, I would rather call myself an amateur.
Atelier Bow Wow
Pet architecture is instead a counter project to formalism.
Pet architecture is instead a counter project to formalism.
Atelier Bow wow's approach to architecture is informed by this research and what they have termed 'micro public space', in which they attempt to recreate some of the behaviours and meetings that occur in the city in gallery installations and in their buildings.
I think that contemporary architecture is increasingly finding its meaning in an autobiographical manner because we don't trust our own judgement; we have to be guaranteed by a sort of branding.
But this means that architecture is becoming something more and more separate from us; it's something that you look at, as opposed to something which you are in.
you know for me architecture is not an answer to a question.
You could describe a question as a programmatic functional thing, and you can answer it in that way, but for me the architecture is more like the discovery of possibilities in form and space, and how these things relate to each other.
The logic of architecture is added to â or rather: inserted into â the borrowed form later.
One of the great excitements now in architecture is that we are free:
For me the real measure of architecture is the body moving through space, along with all the senses: sound, smell, texture, space, time, duration...
The greatness of Greek architecture is precisely because they believed in cyclical time, which is why everything could be perfected, while we only believe in linear time, which is why we always try to do something again, then there is local time âwhich is the time of each placeâ, along with global time.
It is important for students to have access to the basics, as I said, but it's more important for them to actually go into buildings and realise that architecture is always much more when you experience than when you look at photographs or images.
Frank Lloyd Wright said that architecture is the mother of all arts.
What's more, architecture is not only an art form, it is also the most difficult one of all, because bringing an artistic dimension into the project âbreathing life into this incredible pragmatic world that we live inâ is definitely harder than creating a sculpture or a painting.
But we're not so rigid, in the sense that architecture is impossible to talk about.
As we see it, architecture is about the future.
1 MV: We can't grasp the entire complexity of architecture, and any ambition to grasp all aspects of architecture is naÃ¯ve and bo und to fail.
But history has taught us that while architecture is a result of politics, it's not the solution to social problems.
Or perhaps it's to persuade the client, even if the actual thinking behind the architecture is not communicated to them in detail..
Randomness in architecture is a visual translation of pure mathematical order and thinking which is guided by logic, whereas arbitrariness has no underlying conceptual logic randomness is not to do with pure formalism to demonstrate all the different aspects.
Ultimately architecture is all about the creation of pleasant and stimulating settings for all aspects of social life.
there is the perception of architecture is different because it is a more immersive experience it's about is how the person places herself in the space whereas fashion is about how you place the object on the person.
I think our attention to light, our integration of technical systems in architecture is sophisticated and well resolved.
The architect has been locked in a trunk while architecture is staggering mindlessly to lift the load back home.
Without ending (since the above is neither theory nor object), I believe that even the ugliest architecture is going to be clearer than the handsomest name or the wisest visage.
But architecture is an art of communication and it is an art of culture and it is an art of the intellect, it is poetry, it is music.
One thing about architecture is that the more you look at good buildings, the more love you have for them.
But I think architecture is about fighting in a different sense.
Since architecture is a form of human expression, when it steps out of the exigencies of sheer construction toward the realm of aesthetics, the question of architecture as art arises.
For me, making architecture is the same as thinking.
For me, I think architecture is one of the best professions for society.
1 architecture is a very long word; can it be abbreviated?
real architecture is always objective and an expression of the internal structure of the times in which it has arisen (to quote Mies van der Rohe) 15 is the idea the starter motor?
Today the architecture is quick, fast and rather commercial.
Dutch architecture is often striving for a quick and nice effect.
Herzog & de Meuron
Even more consonant with our architecture is Wright's own master Louis Sullivan.
To me architecture is not primarily the solution of a problem, but the making of a statement.
To me architecture is not primarily the solution to a problem, but the making of a statement.
In the project of the Forum for Music, Dance, and Visual Culture, Ghent, the whole architecture is a bunch of tubes, like the human body.
In Gent, the architecture is made of tubes like human body.
If we think that geometry arises as traces of the point, the possibility of generating architecture is suddenly extended.
ARCHITECTURAL SPACE The term 'architectural space' seems at first to be purely tautological, since architecture is itself defined by physically built space.
EVIDENCE Instead of developing an individualistic vocabulary in architecture, a distinctive style or gesture, my architecture is driven much more by a research for criteria, by a quest for evidence in architecture, and by the desire to create a building that looks the way it does simply because it has to look exactly that wayâbeyond any aesthetical desire, and for purely logical reasons resulting from evident intellectual necessities.
Well, I would say: my understanding of architecture is close to the understanding of art, in the sense that I consider architecture as being a media; like music defined by noises, like culture defined by volumes, and architecture is defined by the space.
And if an idea in architecture is not able to survive all this requirements and restrictions, that are like the second nature of the media of architecture, than these ideas have no meaning.
In the end, my architecture is still some sort of abstraction.
Even Mayan architecture might still be an abstraction of something but I do not know of what it is an abstraction of and, therefore, I cannot understand what Mayan architecture is about if I look at it.
I do not make a distinction between Mayan and Inca architecture concerning the problem of non referentiality but Inca architecture is a more precise orientation for my answer to this particular question.
Inca architecture is so fundamentally architectural that it is reduced to simply piling stones onto each other.
So, this new phase in my architecture is a response to make my architecture more approachable and in some aspects more rich.
One measure that a certain kind of architecture is outside certain boundaries is when other architects, theoreticians, and critics do not include that architecture in their discourse on the state of architecture due to it being absurd.
Of course, the more common problem of architecture is that buildings are just plainly trivial.
I do want to make sure that my architecture is not too close to easy comprehension of the public because I know that if that would happen, then, there is something wrong with my architecture.
My architecture is not symbolic of something and it does not stand in reference to something else other than itself.
I could say that the superstructure for my architecture is noting more and nothing less than the significance of the architectural idea for a building.
In doing this, architecture is communicating to us a particular idea of use and experience.
In its own way, architecture is also a spoil of war, arising out of ideological, aesthetic, economic as well as military conflicts.
"You could say that a lot of the current architecture is about working with the leftovers from the 1960s and 1970s (think Buckminster Fuller, "green architecture
The subject/object divide of architecture is split so clearly through the reading and meaning of architecture, where the meaning and signification of architecture is more important than the sensorial experience or social relevance.
If one accepts that architecture is about altering and extending what is already there, one can engage the powerful presence of the real so that the aura of urbanity is amplified and extended in the place that one is working.
3 While it somehow survives today, the star system in architecture is consistently blasted, and has not been able to reproduce itself.
In opposition lo those who claim that a neâ¢' style of architecture is impossible or undesirable, it is necessary to stress the coherence of the results obtained within the range of possibilities thus far explored.
The idea that a building might have a wider sense of responsibility to its place has been eroded to become largely a matter of choice and whilst contemporary architecture is undoubtedly concerned with the appearance of the building envelope, the outcome is often more akin to that of a mask than a face.
On the other hand, architecture is in every way compelled to retain many ties with our times due to its intrinsic nature.
On the other hand, this same world that serves as the premise for architecture is in a certain state of fluctuation.
I feel that the fundamental question of how to formulate architecture is becoming increasingly important for our current times.
Freeness in architecture is a concept that consumes and absorbs everything like a black hole.
I feel that in modern civilization, architecture is far removed from technology and has come to embody an old fossil like presence.
But architecture is necessarily complex and contradictory in its very inclusion of the traditional Vitruvian elements of commodity, firmness, and delight.
Modern architecture is never implicit.
The core competency of architecture is thus the task of articulation.
The social functional layer of architecture is according to the appropriate delimitation of the domain of the signified at the same time its semantic layer.
According to my theoretical reconstruction of our discipline's rationality (AoA, Vol.1) architecture is operationally encoded by the double code of utility (functionality) and beauty (formal resolution) and a one sided insistence on formal aspects only is accordingly indeed an anomaly.
Paradoxically, DC offers a newer, more unexpected and even more controversial architecture when his work bears the presence of the past than when his architecture is a strict, natural continuity of 'modernity'.
"... good architecture is sustainable."
His strategic vision of architecture is most clearly manifested in his governance of form.
Traditional architecture is structured so that any position occupied by a subject provides the means for understanding that position in relation to a particular spatial typology, such as a rotunda, a transept crossing, an axis, an entry.
As dissimulation is not the inverse, 282 Theories and Manifestoes negative, or opposite of simulation, a 'not classical' architecture is not the inverse, negative, or opposite of classical architecture; it is merely different from or other than.
A ' not classical' architecture is no longer a cenification of experience or a simulation of history, reason or reality in the present.
"I have always felt that my architecture is timeless.
Sometimes I ask myself why architecture is not analyzed in these terms, that is, in terms of its profound value as a human thing that shapes reality and adapts material according to an aesthetic conception.
Pier Vittorio Aureli
In this way the possibility of an absolute architecture is the attempt to reestablish the sense of the city as the site of a political confrontation and recomposition of parts.
The possibility of an absolute architecture is thus both the possibility of making the city and also the possibility of understanding the city and its opposing force urbanization through the very finite nature of architectural form.
For a building surveyor, architecture is a sensor, in that it is aestheticized to its environment.
Peripheral by essence, theatrical by inclination, its performance is a liminary one: architecture is the indifferent margin of life.
Settled between subjects, its scope is political and it range territorial; as the blessed child of clashing progenitors economy, environment, society, program, vanity its condition confines its product to a paradoxical figure: architecture is a radical consensus.
It goes without saying that the brief outlines an array of demands, yet what is at stake is to raise the project to another level of determination and responsibility, which does not only lie in the formulation of a possible answer but engages in the process of raising questions as well; architecture is a potential which should not be negatively defined into categorical feasibility; this is an essential provision and might well be one of the reasons for which we tend to often come short to winning competitions.
One of the characteristics of the aristocratic principle is that it cannot be followed by anyone not being part of it; the social lift, the ability to raise within a given social structure by own means, obviously did not exist at the time; it might well be an overstatement, but what one witnesses in the contemporary production of architecture is a line up of hyperbolic exceptions that cannot be adhered to outside of their contextual framework.
The role of architecture is not to resist, and it cannot in fact resist.
This fulfilment is too shallow an aspiration; if for no better other reason, because architecture is to last longer than one's expectations and is therefore bound to another liability, or another sustainability so to speak, that of the urban form.
Every touching experience of architecture is multi sensory; qualities of matter, space and scale are measured equally by the eye, ear, nose, skin, tongue, skeleton and muscle.
Silence, Time and Solitude However, the most essential auditory experience created by architecture is tranquility.
Architecture presents the drama of construction silenced into matter and space; architecture is the art of petrified silence.
The time of architecture is a detained time; in the greatest of buildings time stands firmly still.
Consequently, architecture is communication from the body of the architect directly to the body of the inhabitant.
and a fragrance carried upon the vapor brings a delicate anticipation." The Task of Architecture The timeless task of architecture is to create embodied existential metaphors that concretize and structure man's being in the world."
ACTORS Given that for us, space is essentially an interactional phenomenon in which architecture is both context and participant in its definition, we need to identify and redefine the other actors in this set of interrelationships and interactions, beginning with humans.
The symbol always has a relationship with meaning, and architecture is obliged to produce meaning.
My architecture is not aligned with the continuity of historic references, but instead breaks off from them.
From an urban perspective, my architecture is anything but a model.
The fact is that the architecture is there, and if you live in highdefinition architecture, it is hard to ignore; you have to make an effort to not keep the fact constantly in mind.
I believe that one of the capacities of this phenomenon is that when an architecture is worked out, it quickly turns into something natural.
I would like to mention GaudÃ: his architecture is so spectacular but also so natural at the same time.
I think one of the tasks of architecture is to establish a connection with duration, with the subtlety of certain perceptions, which obviously has nothing to do with that spectacular condition.
One of the characteristics of architecture is that it dictates behaviour, but to what extent can we do that?
I believe that architecture is the search for a form of the pleasures of a place.
SIGNIFICANCE OF SCENERIES To generate architecture is analogous to create unforgettable sceneries.
TELESCOPIC NESTING Ideal architecture is analogous to a 'nebulous territory'.
SIGNIFICANCE OF EXTERIORS I think architecture is in making of its exteriors.
SYNCHRONOUSLY SEPARATED AND CONNECTED architecture is to generate 'propinquity'.
Yet, simultaneously, architecture is also to generate 'connectivity'.
WINDOWS architecture is a spatial window.
FORMULATION AND INTERACTIVITY architecture is constituted from two substances of formulation and interactivity.
I used to say and still say that architecture is the materialization of the concept.
That's how it's always worked because much of my argument is that architecture is about certain concepts and certain ideas.
That is, architecture is always about ideas, about concepts, but also more.
The reason why I'm so optimistic about architecture's futureânot that architecture is going to "solve" thingsâis because we are constantly dependent on it.
Composed of large numbers of unbound yet designed granules, an aggregate architecture is based on a fundamentally different logic of construction: in contrast to assembly systems, aggregates materially compute their overall constructional configuration and shape as spatiotemporal behavioural patterns, with an equal ability for both: the stable character of a solid material and the rapid reconfigurability of a fluid.
Computation is emerging as a key interface for material exploration, enabling engagement with aspects of the material world that until recently were too far removed from the modalities of designers' sense and intuition.2 This represents a significant perceptual shift in which the materiality of architecture is no longer seen as a fixed property and passive receptor of digitally derived form, but is transformed into an active generator of design and an adaptive agent of architectural performance.
Each of these assumptions can be transformed once the virtual space in which architecture is conceptualized is mobilized with both time and force.
If architecture is to approach this more complex concept of gravity, its design technologies should also incorporate factors of time and motion.
In our present age, the virtual space within which architecture is conceived is now being rethought by the introduction of advanced motion tools and a constellation of new diagrams based on the computer.
he fact that architecture is so heavily dependent on mathematics for the description of space has been a stumbling block to the use of motion and flow in the design process, as these ideas require that architects draw geometries whose underlying mathematics is calculus.
The computer has already proven to be useful as both a descriptive and a visualizing tool to architects, but the introduction of time and motion techniques into architecture is not simply a visual phenomenon.
But the idea that the baroque period anticipates topology in architecture is somewhat misplaced.